Key discoveries from research project on AI and sustainable mobility

May 28th, 2024

In early 2022, WirelessCar and Halmstad University launched the FREEDOM Project. Together, we have conducted research and development on how to promote sustainable mobility through connected vehicles and artificial intelligence (AI). As the FREEDOM Project now wraps up, these are some of the key discoveries we have made, and what they mean for OEMs and EV users.

Are EVs really better for the climate than ICE vehicles?

The foundation for this research project was to design connected car services that reduce CO₂ emissions. From a CO₂ perspective, are EVs really better for the climate than ICE vehicles? If yes, then why and how?

Manufacturing an EV will consume more CO₂ compared to the manufacturing of an ICE vehicle, even if the EV has a small battery. So, battery size is a factor that affects emission output, as shown here.


Small battery
(30 kWh)

Big battery
(100 kWh)

Vehicle production




Battery production




Sum: Tons of CO₂ produced




However, the greatest CO₂ difference between EVs and ICE vehicles emerges in the usage phase. This especially when EVs get charged with power from green energy.

When taking both the production and the usage phases into account, we see that after driving and charging a smaller EV (with a 30 kWh battery) for two years in Sweden, the climate impact will be smaller compared to using an ICE vehicle during that same time period (even when taking the battery production into account). For a car with a larger battery, that time would be six years

Two new concepts designed to support electrification

The conclusion from the CO₂ study is that electrification is generally a good alternative for reducing emissions, especially when focusing on two aspects: battery size in the production phase, and charging in the usage phase. Therefore, we designed two new services.

One of these is a new WirelessCar concept called Best EV for Me. Best EV for Me presents the customer with the most suitable EV, based on driving patterns. Many FREEDOM Project interviewees expressed doubts about how far they would be able to drive their EVs. Generally, most respondents thought they needed to have a much bigger EV battery than their travel history and patterns would suggest. Best EV for Me will help dispel customers’ misconceptions about battery size, range anxiety, and other common EV concerns.

Then there is Plug & Save, which is a concept that supports the EV owner to charge his or her car when prices are low. In our research project, this concept was enhanced with two new machine learning models that answer the questions: Will I drive tomorrow, and if yes, how far? Based on the answers, combined with the predicted energy prices, we can suggest the optimal charging time period for the individual EV user.

Plug & Save is also a concrete step toward the transformation of energy production, distribution, and storage through vehicle to home (V2H) and vehicle to grid (V2G) technology. You can find out more about this in our Plug & Go article.

Engineer people and control robotics with monitoring system software and icon industry

Other key takeaways from the FREEDOM Project

In addition to the concepts mentioned above, these are some of the other takeaways from the FREEDOM Project:

• Working across disciplines is critical
The FREEDOM Project has been the result of several disciplines and stakeholders coming together: an OEM, six data scientists, a service designer, and three university professors in the fields of machine learning, business innovation, and service design, respectively. When looking at the development of connected car services, AI, and machine learning – and their increasing complexity – we need to approach these topics from many different angles. Only then can we stay truly innovative, and lead rather than follow.

• Data is not gold, but can lead us to it
There is an expression that says that data is the new gold. But data itself is not gold at all; its value lies in all the things you are able to do with it. The FREEDOM Project highlights the critical importance of making data useful by looking closely at the data you have, and finding out how to get the most value out of it: optimizing charging at home based on electricity and trip data, for example. Knowing how to get the most value out of one’s data will increasingly set OEMs apart from one another in the new, digital automotive landscape.

Make sure to read our other articles on EV insights and the FREEDOM Project. If you want to know more about how we work with machine learning and AI to design and develop our connected car services, you are welcome to contact me via the address below. You can also learn more about the FREEDOM Project in the official report.

Natalie Lucca
Product Owner Analytics & AI